Sunday, July 03, 2011
Repost: History that should not—and will not—disappear: July 4, 1894, illegal overthrow of Hawaii completed
by Larry Geller
Cannon on the steps of the occupied Iolani Palace
On July 4, 1894, the Republic of Hawaii was declared, with Sanford B. Dole as president. The illegal overthrow of the independent nation of Hawaii was complete.
Yes, although your daily paper may want you to forget this, it is history that should not be ignored. There’s even a federal law confirming the truth of the history they refuse to print.
From the Apology Resolution, United States Public Law 103-150:
Whereas, in a message to Congress on December 18, 1893, President Grover Cleveland reported fully and accurately on the illegal acts of the conspirators, described such acts as an "act of war, committed with the participation of a diplomatic representative of the United States and without authority of Congress", and acknowledged that by such acts the government of a peaceful and friendly people was overthrown... President Cleveland further concluded that a "substantial wrong has thus been done which a due regard for our national character as well as the rights of the injured people requires we should endeavor to repair" and called for the restoration of the Hawaiian monarchy.
Whereas, the indigenous Hawaiian people never directly relinquished their claims to their inherent sovereignty as a people or over their national lands to the United States, either through their monarchy or through a plebiscite or referendum.
A treaty of annexation was never passed by Congress, and President Grover Cleveland withdrew the treaty. Then on this day in history…
On July 4, 1894, the archipelago's new leaders responded to this rebuff by proclaiming a Republic of Hawaii, with Sanford Dole as president. Under its constitution, most legislators would be appointed rather than elected, and only men with savings and property would be eligible for public office. This all but excluded native Hawaiians from the government of their land… [From Overthrow, a book by Stephen Kinzer]
What was the motivation? Need you ask? Why is the US in Iraq?From the Washington Post review of Overthrow:
As Stephen Kinzer tells the story in Overthrow, America's century of regime changing began not in Iraq but Hawaii. Hawaii? Indeed. Kinzer explains that Hawaii's white haole minority -- in cahoots with the U.S. Navy, the White House and Washington's local representative -- conspired to remove Queen Liliuokalani from her throne in 1893 as a step toward annexing the islands. The haole plantation owners believed that by removing the queen (who planned to expand the rights of Hawaii's native majority) and making Hawaii part of the United States, they could get in on a lucrative but protected mainland sugar market. Ever wonder why free trade has such a bad name?
The road leading up to the declaration of the Republic of Hawaii was rocky, and can’t be summed up in a short blog article. Did you know, for example, that a US Senate investigation revealed that a bribe had been offered to Queen Liliuokalani to turn against her people and support the Republic? This snip is from a New York Times article on the Senate investigation, dated 1/29/1894:
The declaration of the Republic was not a single, static event. There was considerable debate in Congress on resolutions condemning the overthrow and proposed annexation. For example, this snip from the 1/25/1894 New York Times will give you an idea of the complexity that we lose in simplifying Hawaii’s history:
Each article is much longer than the snips above. It would be worthwhile to skim the New York Times for a complete account of the Congressional debate. No doubt this has already been done. If not, the articles are available on-line for the harvesting..
If you’re not familiar with Hawaiian history, beware of websites that work hard to re-write it. The true picture of the overthrow is not pretty, nor can the acts of the US government be justified or whitewashed. Google cautiously.
Let your children know that there is more to July 4 than barbeques and fireworks. It is a holiday that tears people apart here in Hawaii. See how you can work this history into your celebrations and festivities, so that it will never disappear.
my pledge for this 04 Iulai 2011 is to never forget the freedom of my Kingdom. To live for justice and honor and to know that one day and be it a day soon, the Kingdom of Hawaii will be again for the people.
There are many similarities between Palestine and Hawaii; they are both illegally occupied. A NAKBA, A CATASTROPHE!!!Many thanks for daring to go where few venture!
July 4 is a triple holiday for Hawaii -- 1776, 1894, 1960
July 4, 1776 marked the creation of the United States through the Declaration of Independence. Hawaii proudly celebrates that date as part of our heritage because Hawaii joined the union.
July 4, 1894 marked the creation of the Republic of Hawaii through the publication of its Constitution. At least five delegates to the Constitutional Convention were native Hawaiians; the Constitution was published in both English and Hawaiian; the Speaker of the House was former royalist John Kaulukou.
July 4, 1960 marked the date when the U.S. flag with 50 stars was first officially displayed, by being raised at 12:01 AM at the Fort McHenry National Monument in Baltimore, Maryland (where Francis Scott Key had written "The Star Spangled Banner"). This followed the tradition of naming the next July 4 following admission to Statehood as the date for official display of the new flag.
Let's remember what Hawaii was like on America's birthdate in 1776. Captain Cook had not yet arrived. Hawaiians were living in the stone age. They had not yet invented the wheel, had no written language, and no clay pottery. They had only extremely small amounts of metal that washed up in driftwood from sunken ships. There was constant warfare among competing warlords. There was no concept of human rights -- both slavery and human sacrifice were practiced. The death penalty was imposed on anyone who stepped on the shadow of a high chief, or any woman who ate a banana or coconut.
Things had functioned that way for a thousand years and would have remained unchanged except for the arrival of British explorers in 1778, followed by European and American whalers and businessmen, and then American missionaries in 1820. Hawaiians eagerly embraced reading and writing, Christian religion, human rights, private property rights, a market economy, the rule of law, etc. In 1893 a revolution led by a local militia with 1500 members put an end to a corrupt and ineffective monarchy, replacing it with a republic.
Thus we Hawaiians celebrate a triple holiday on July 4, for 1776 (U.S. independence) 1894 (Republic of Hawaii), and 1960 (50th star added to U.S. flag). Unfortunately most citizens today don't know that the Republic of Hawaii was internationally recognized de jure as the legitimate government of Hawaii by letters personally signed by emperors, kings, queens, and presidents of at least 20 nations on four continents in eleven languages, sent to President Dole during the last half of 1894.
For details about July 4 as a triple holiday for Hawaii, see
For a detailed and heavily documented rebuttal to the history-twisters' claims that the revolution of 1894 was illegal, the annexation of 1898 was illegal, and the statehood vote of 1959 was illegal, please see "Hawaii Statehood -- straightening out the history-twisters. A historical narrative defending the legitimacy of the revolution of 1893, the annexation of 1898, and the statehood vote of 1959."
Ken, I knew I could count on receiving a comment from you on July 4. Thanks for reading my blog, anyway.
There's no need for me to rebut all of it, but some is really interesting to me.
I'm glad that you seem to object to slavery and human sacrifice. Too bad, though, that you don't object to it right here at home. Hawaii will be the site of the largest human trafficking (indentured servitude) trial in US history starting next year, and this month a related case begins in federal court. It looks like our agricultural economy, at least, is still dependent on human slavery. And we're not talking 1776, either. It's 2011. In case you didn't know it, our founding fathers had nothing against slavery and some kept slaves themselves.
As to human sacrifice, have you not been reading the newspaper? Between the Taliban, Al Qaeda and yes, the USA, we're engaged in massive human sacrifice. We don't even care much about sacrificing our own troops. Or of course killing vast numbers of others. Now we've got drones to make it easier to kill. We're killing innocent men, women and children in various spots around the world in greater numbers than ever before. Our partner in crime, Israel, killed 1400+ people while we looked the other way, even though about a third (?) of those are children. Did we withhold our aid money, which made the massacre possible? No. We don't have much claim to nobility, and I'm talking again about today, not a hundred years ago.
I need to draw this comment to an end, but I don't want to miss the US firebombing of Tokyo that killed more people than either atomic bomb, or of course the killing of innocent civilians with those two bombs. I mention this to put things in perspective. Hawaii, at any time in its history, did not rise to these heights of mass human destruction that we ourselves demonstrate and still accept.
There is also the question of singling out Hawaii in those days as a place that it is ok to take over because of the nature of its people. That was part of the openly imperial argument at the time. Remember, the occupiers could not get enough slave labor to run the plantations. We did not behave much differently, did we, once we took over? Does the designation of a people as savages, which is what you are doing, justify military and then genocidal action against them? Did not one "savage" simply replace others?
The Hawaiian people were very capable of modern government, education, agriculture, and other aspects of "civilization" that defy your implications, and their government was recognized fully by other countries.
By the way, imperfect though my own arguments may be, comments in this blog are really not structured to hold a proper debate about it, and I can't devote the time to reviving an old subject for your pleasure.
So comments here will be closed with this one.
Aloha e Larry & all others on this webpage and also those that will read what i will be posting, very, very shortly.
1) Everyone must understand that the United States and/or the United States of America and Congress for that matter has been "Bankrupt." The President or CEO of this "Corporation," has "abdicated" his throne," and has given it up to another "King," and/or "Monarchy," the Governor of the "International Monetary Fund," see United States Code Title 22 - Section 286: Acceptance of Membership by the United States in International Monetary Fund.
2) Not one, and i mean not even one judge/attorney is licensed in the "State of" Hawaii???? Go down to the Department of Commerce & Consumer Affairs," and go find and do your own research about what i just posted...That means that these "Foreign Agents" are both, "Foreign & Private Agents" of the "IMF," who receives funds for the Federal Reserve...Check out U.S.C. Title 18 Section 951; U.S.C. Title 22 Section 612; and especially this one, U.S.C. Title 8- Title 1481...
3) That all courts of the Hawaiian islands today is controlled and is a "Private Judiciary."
4) That the "Hawaii State Bar Association, who has a "private membership" now of almost 10,000, foreign and private agents to collect information and contributions for a "Foreign Power," is only registered with the Department of Commerce and Consumer Affairs, but like all "Judges/Attorneys/Lawyers, are not "Licensed" to do business in the "State of" Hawaii...
There is a lot more i could freely share, but i believe this information that i have shared, in and of itself is enough for you all to chew on for a while...
Larry, you are the best! Thank you for giving us the original documents to read! And for pointing out the erroneous claims of Mr. Conklin. I plant to share this widely. (ie, on FaceBook) :-)
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